Hospitality is one of the main factors of the United Kingdom’s economy and the economic driver of almost every single part of the country. Tourism and hospitality is the fifth largest industry in the UK. The basic purpose of hospitality is to form a relationship or to encourage exchange of goods and services, both material and symbolic, among those who give hospitality (hosts) and those who receive it (guests)(Morrison, 1996).
Oxford is a city located in southern England and the county town of Oxford shire. It has a population of 150,200 and is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom or one of the fastest growing, most ethnically diverse city (). Oxford city of UK is also one of the main attractions for tourism and hospitality businesses. It is the seventh most visited city in the UK by foreigners and is the tourism gateway to the rest of Oxford shire it is a home to approximately 4,000 businesses and providing 106,000 jobs (). The city has a large amount of individuals employed in public sector and universities, but also has substantial jobs in other sectors including tourism, hospitality, publishing, and a developing hi-tech sector driven by highly qualified workforce. There is a high level of traveling in to the city. It attracts around 9.5 million visitors per year and generating £770 million of income for local Oxford businesses ().
One of the main strengths of the tourism and hospitality industry is its wealth and job creating potential which is spread all over the country benefiting the towns, cities and rural areas from the activities of restaurants, hotels, pubs, catering businesses and events. Hospitality is not only important for the economic success of local economies but, it also plays a major role in the social and cultural life of their societies ().
Hospitality outlets are usually the places or popular tourist destinations and attractions having a large tourist credibility. Likewise, Oxford city is a Centre of many hotels, restaurants, pubs, takeaway food shops, and licensed clubs (). Main tourist attractions of the city includes; Religious sites such as Christ Church Cathedral, University Church of St Mary the Virgin, Martyrs’ Memorial; Museums and galleries such as Oxford University museum of natural history, Ashmolean museum, Britain’s oldest museum, Pitt Rivers museum, The Bodleian library, The Clarendon building, The Radcliffe Camera, Christ Church Meadow, Port Meadow Mesopotamia, Angel & Greyhound Meadow, Florence Park, South Park and Warne ford Meadow.
According to Carrerssearch.com, the online source for hospitality, shows that the Oxford hospitality and catering outlets dropped marginally in last few years ().Many Hospitality companies are using leisure venues in order to progress within the industry and to reach a wider market.
The interrelationships between Hospitality and tourism organizations is that the tourism industry attracts the customers to different destinations around the world through promotion and marketing (). Whereas, the Hospitality aspect is that they provide comfort, entertainment and leisure for the consumers, within restaurants, clubs, hotels and transport. There are three domains in the Hospitality industry; the social domain refers to the interactions of people and the services provided, as Hospitality is about the interaction and relationships between them and their consumers. The second domain is referred as the Private domain, this is based on the free standing outlets as it creates the relationships of hospitality with consumers through food based elements through restaurants, bars and food chains. The third domain is the Commercial domain which refers to the business side of the hospitality industry or how the service or business is promoted to their consumers ().More specifically, in the relationship between tourism and hospitality, the Tourism aspect is the demand and the Hospitality is the need, as Hospitality ensures the consumers to have a satisfaction and probes into building loyalty between the organization and customer which would not exist otherwise().
Many Travel and Tourism organizations in Oxford have global connections with Hospitality services in order to offer deals and services to consumers travelling to that city destinations. To provide the top services for their consumers, travel organizations in Oxford often promote Hospitality services within their own company and outside the company to spread the word about different services they are providing and the companies they are associated with ().
In order to attract more people to the holiday destinations in Oxford, the tourism and hospitality organizations would employ a variety of hospitality outlets, whether it is a restaurant, hotel or casino. This is usually done to expand tourist destinations for the improvement in the amount of tourists each year. The Hospitality outlets have become the attractions in Oxford city which has generated more money for the tourism organizations and increased their tourist income. Tourists do spend a significant amount of money for leisure and want to obtain the benefits offered on their tour, mainly for the premium prices paid (). Some of the aspects in which tourism and hospitality are inter related are as follows;
The role of hospitality in package holidays is very significant. Tourism companies design certain packages offering different facilities and attractions at varied process. A holiday package offering multiple attractions or facilities at an affordable price are mostly purchased so that customers would benefit from good hotel and airline ticket prices.
Hospitality also exists onboard airlines in the form of catering services, meals menu and sleeping arrangements.
Business people mostly opt hotels which are have all the necessary facilities to work comfortably such as Wi-Fi or cable internet access, conference areas or meeting rooms, 24 hour laundry and dry cleaning services.
Visitor attraction may be manmade museums and theme parks, or natural attractions such as natural parks. Some sites are of interest to people simply due to the activities taking place there and because of the hosting of that place.
As Oxford city has a popular among other tourism cities in UK with so many popular or worth watching destinations. It also has almost all the hospitality elements such as hotels, restaurants, casinos, transport facilities etc. Keeping this in view, tourist and hospitality businesses can take maximum advantage by designing marketing strategies, offering attractive packages and valuable services so that the tourism can be sustained. Moreover, the number of hotels should be increased so that it would be able to attract all kind of customers i.e., male, female, business men, families etc.
Integration is when organizations are able to benefit from lower operating costs by providing their own products or services through in-house efforts and saving company’s money without outsourcing in the long run. Through integration, companies are also able to increase their global presence and their market share ().There are two specific levels of integration within the Hospitality sector;
Vertical integration refers to a process in which a company purchases another company in the distribution chain, or establishes a merger agreement (). This is mainly done to maximize profitability and take advantage from lower operating costs. It is usually characterized by forward, backward and lateral integration.
Forward vertical integration is a process in which a company merges with another company further in the distribution chain (). For example, a hotel chain may buy its own travel agency in order to expand into other markets. Hotels often make agreements with tour operators and travel agents to provide special room rates and offerings for clients.
Backward Vertical integration is when a company purchases one of its suppliers and makes use of its inputs for the benefit of the organization (). For example, a tour operator might purchase an airline company or a hotel, as they are both suppliers of services which are essential for the package industry.
Lateral integration requires the merger of two organizations which may have indirectly related products and services (). These three types of vertical integration suggests possible strategies which may be adopted by the companies in Oxford or all others around the world.
Horizontal integration is done when companies want to expand their customer base, benefit from economies of scale and ultimately maximize profits. It happens when a company purchases or merges with another company at the same level of the distribution chain and both the companies have a common goal (). For example a renowned hotels chain purchase another hotel or resort.
The level of integration has risen in the hospitality sector. Integration works more effectively when you have two different areas of the tourism industry integrated, for instance an airline company joining with a travel provider will allow the company to expand into different fields and attract new customers to their company. It also is a good way to promote their brand within other fields’ brand, as it can reach a broader consumer.
The implications of integration within the hospitality sector would be the organization which has many other different firms under their control. In case of vertical integration those firms would be under one organization but would still be controlled by different outlets. Sometimes, this creates problems for the whole organization especially when a major problem rises in one specific sector but the whole organization would have to go under crises control in order to maintain the reputation of that brand and the whole organization. Some of the implications of integration in the hospitality industry are as follows;
A Brand name may invoke certain feelings or emotions linked to personal experiences with the brand. Like other industries, the success of the tourism industry also depends upon the branding techniques implemented by organizations, and how sound they convey their messages to target markets so that the clients are able to associate themselves with those brands. Brands often let their loyal customers perceive their products or services as reflection of their personality and character (). For instance, if a group of business people check in to hotel in the Oxford city, they would expect the same check-in procedures, ambience and luxuries in any other branch of that hotel.
Market control and integration between larger organizations
Few of the UK’s major tour operators have purchased hotels out of the country to increase their global presence and profitability. This would enable them to control their hotel rates to their advantage, bringing more affordable packages to their clients while increasing their sales. Survival of travel and tourism basically depends on the fittest companies which offer the best balance between quality, quantity and value for money ().
Globalization is the result of a gathering of expansions which can be examined from an internal and external perspective. A company will face internal globalization when its employees from around the world will develop relationships with one another ref. External globalization is when team members interact with clients from all over the world. Social networking websites also allow for such communication to occur.
Economies of scale and market share
Through integration, company’s operating costs can be reduced significantly. If a tour operator takes over a hotel, the cost related with investment would be high, but the benefits gained by offering a wider variety of products or services can be realized immediately. By adopting this integration, the tour operator will reduce its dependency on other accommodation providers because most operations can be taken care of within company now. The tour operator may lower its costs of packages and which benefits the consumers along with the use of right strategies will increase market share and profitability. Through horizontal integration, companies can expand their client base, whereas through vertical integration companies can enter new markets and attract an entirely different customer base ().
Standardization is a complex and time consuming process in some industries involving so many variables. Automated processes can be standardized easily but it is very difficult to standardize the human element (). For instance, some food chain restaurants throughout the world have their processes standardized, the procedures which employees follow and food are nearly identical. The company needs to be highly efficient, time oriented and controlling over its processes and workforce to achieve standardization.
Improvement in quality is not guaranteed through integration as it depends on how variable the human component is. If a hotel is taken over by another company or person, it does not mean that the new owner will have a better approach towards improving quality ().
It might also happen that the employees may not get along with their new boss because they believe that the approach being adopted towards improving quality is not feasible or practical, therefore increasing the risk of error.
Even though, offering quality services is the top agenda throughout, Hotels chains located all over the world also face such problems. Therefore, it is important that the management in any organization to listen what employees have to say and then opt for certain policies because employees are the people who are in constant contact with customers and they know what customers are expecting from the organization.
If we look at a hotel as part of the hospitality sector, the target market for this would be reliant on the destination of the hotel because this could reflect on the costs and the amount of money people would spend to stay there as well as the type of holiday destination it is. Whether it is in the center of the city surrounded by momentous buildings for people who enjoy site seeing, near the beach, or located in the busiest casinos and bar area. It is important to take consideration of many different factors such as price, best deal offerings, affordable or attractive packages, good location and reputation for designing a hotel and marketing it ().
The target market for the hotel would be males, females, business men and families. As many people tend to travel in groups or with families so it would be important to have family based facilities and offering activities for people of any age group to enjoy. Many airlines also offer different family deals for trips and holidays. The hotels should offer such services in association with the airlines so that the airlines as well as the hotel business benefit with these kind of offers ().
If this hotel succeeded as a franchise and established having a chain of hotels located in many different destinations then it would be good to keep the exterior look of the hotel traditional and classy. The building should be unique, a set of apartments or separate buildings which are not as high as many other buildings would give it a feel of being in a luxury small village surrounding a swimming pool and large gates. A playground would also be allocated nearby for children to enjoy, surrounded by bars and a food area. There would be small paths with flowers and grass on the sides of buildings. Holiday resorts are becoming more popular in recent years so to create a similar type of look would be effective and different compared to the competition ().
There are a variety of organizational structures to be identified such as; Pre-bureaucratic structures, Bureaucratic, Post-bureaucratic, Functional structures, Divisional structures and the Matrix structure. The operational requirements of the hotel’s organizational structure would focus on the Divisional structures (organizational is often organized into diverse divisions, based on product, market and geographical areas) and the Matrix structures (organizational aspects which are linked together or forms the interaction of different people within the company) as they relate to the other organizational structures as well as probe into their own specific fields(). For a hospitality outlet it is important to represent areas such as product, market and geographical aspects as the company’s main criteria which the Divisional structures offer.
It is imperative to focus on the consumer’s demands and needs to achieve and improve the performance of an organization especially in the hospitality industry. They need to identify their weaknesses and strengths so that the weaknesses can be improved and strengths are developed and built upon (). Another important factor in the organizational development would be commitment in any field as it offers and promotes to give full satisfaction for their consumers.
Overall, integration can be a positive improvement especially for companies of tourism and hospitality in Oxford but it can also have some negative effects. Hospitality and Tourism work well hand to hand with each other because the tourism part promotes the holidays and the destinations or it is the business side of the field. While, the hospitality aspect is the relationship between the consumer and business, and normally builds the brand’s loyalty with the consumer ().
Certain aspects and attractions provided through travel and tourism keep this industry alive. Few people would take the incentive to travel if there are not any decent places to visit, eat and sleep. There are hotels and restaurants which cater for different target markets. Business people may require a business oriented hotel which offers all of the necessary conveniences for business communications, whereas a family may opt for a resort setting where they can spend most of their time relaxing. The different hotel star ratings offer guests with an arrangement of accommodation providers that suit their pockets. The hospitality industry must work hand-in-hand with the travel and tourism industry to provide tourists with an exceptional experience, where all components must be carefully planned to offer the best value for money ().
Integration is certain for some organizations who aim to expand their businesses. It gives them control over suppliers at different or the same stages of the distribution chain, with the objective of increasing market share, decreasing operating costs, improving quality and maximizing profitability(). Companies often integrate as it is less risky than starting up new companies. It also requires take time for people to develop a trust for a company that has just started.
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The impact of Information technology (IT) on the healthcare sector
Table of Contents:
Literature Review: 2
Research Methodology: 4
Data Analysis: 5
Survey Questioner: 14
IT is helping to provide a better treatment decision, safe and higher quality care, provide information on choices, support better response to health needs, support effective, operative and equitable health awareness systems to deal with health threats (Khatun, 2015).
To examine the study on the impact of information technologies used in the healthcare sector
- To analyze the significance of the impact of information technologies used in the healthcare sector
- How Information technologies used within the healthcare sector to improve industry performance and productivity?
The rationale of the study:
The main reason for selection of this research topic is researcher huge interest and curiosity to understand the concept of Information technology.
The significance of the study:
This research study has the primary purpose to examine the impact of IT in the healthcare sector assists in leading the changes and fluctuation in the policies, procedure, and system.
From Ruirui (2016), point of view, in the economy, change in technology is seen as a way to increase production and improve efficiency. This is true in the health care market, which is extremely informative and can significantly benefit from the efficient management of information. For example, advances in information technology allow close decision-making on pharmacies. Information technology in the Health care sector is one of the most critical changes in the health care industry, because of its potential cost reduction, monitoring and reducing medical errors. Adaptation of such technologies in US hospitals is lower than most EU countries. More and more researchers and policymakers are beginning to take a significant interest in the low adoption issue (Sun, 2016).
From Peter, Soongoo, and Keng (2000), perspective the information systems currently used by health organizations are generally divided into three main areas: transaction processing systems, information management systems, and decision support systems. Most hospitals and clinics in the 1970s and 1980s have implemented hospital information systems for administrative purposes as a way of addressing patient admission and billing processes. In the 1990s, health organizations began using information systems for clinical purposes to improve patient care. The health care organizations (providers) should plan carefully how to handle distressed property to compete best. A structured framework is the best way to allocate capital investments in information technology (Peter, Soongoo, and Keng, 2000)
Fatema (2015) examines how developing countries act to strengthen and modify their Information Management system using existing IT in the mid-1990s to the early 2000s. Due to poor economic and infrastructure communications, the process is limited to national and provincial or regional levels, leaving most health workers in remote or rural areas (Khatun, 2015). SYLVIA (2005), recommends that developing nations need to make deliberate efforts to address barriers that threaten the increase in technology intervals between urban and rural areas by setting appropriate policies and strategies (NABANOBA, 2005).
According to Jinhyung, Jeffrey, and Robert (2013), IT investments may affect hospitals through different mechanisms. Applications such as supply chain management, accounting, and billing reduce transaction costs and improve resource allocation. Most, if not all, returns from these applications should be internally through hospitals and consequences of clinical systems, such as electronic medical records (EMRs), are more complex one (Jinhyung, Jeffrey, and Robert, 2013).
According to Jess, Elizabeth, Renee, and Khoffman (2016), in today’s world, technology plays a vital role in every industry as well as in personal life. Of all industries where technology plays an important role, health care is paramount. This merger is responsible for improving and saving many lives around the world. Medical technology is a broad field where innovation plays a crucial role in maintaining good health. Areas such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, information technology, medical devices and equipment development have contributed significantly to improving the health of people all over the world. From “small” innovations such as adhesive bandages and ankle braces to larger and more complex techniques such as MRI machines, artificial organs, and robotic artifacts, technology has undoubtedly had a surprising impact on medicine. The reliance on medical technology in the medical industry should not be exaggerated. With the development of these innovative technologies, healthcare workers can continue to find ways to improve practice, from diagnosis, surgical procedures and patient care improvement (JESS, ELIZABETH, RENEE and KHOFFMAN, 2016).
The AAFP (2019), stated that with the help of IT, it provides up-front payments to physicians who can demonstrate the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for medication coordination, disease management, referrals, electronic prescriptions, and communication with patients and other doctors. Conversely, doctors without a HIT system should not be penalized for negative payment adjustments (AAFP, 2019).
Research methodology is a kind of technique that apply within investigation to obtaining the solution to the research topic. In the current research study, the main aim of the research is to conduct the study on to critically evaluate the impact of information technology in the health care sector.
In the current research study, the scholar has the primary objective is to analyze the impact of IT on the healthcare sector so for address this objective of research, scholar have applied inductive research approach.
In the current research study, the researcher has applied interpretivism research philosophy for conduct study to analyze the impact of IT on the healthcare sector.
To address the objective of research, the scholar has applied quantitative research technique. In this research technique, information has interpreted and analyzed by use of excel through graph analysis.
In the present investigation, for conduct study regarding the impact of IT on the healthcare sector, the scholar has applied exploratory research design. By using this research design, the researcher has successfully conducted the study to analyze the impact of IT on the healthcare sector and address research targets.
In the current research study, the scholar has used both primary and secondary data collection method. In the context of primary data collection, the scholar has organized survey through which the researcher was able to gather respondent’s views, opinion, feedback regarding the information technologies used and its impact in the healthcare. On the other hand, in the secondary data collection, the researcher has used books, journals, online blogs, articles, etc. in the section of the literature review.
In the current research investigation, for conduct study upon the impact of IT on the healthcare sector, the scholar has applied a simple random sampling method. In this regard, a random sample of a given size, all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability.
In the present study regarding the impact of IT on the healthcare sector, the scholar has followed different ethics to making research more reliable and valid. During the collection of information, the scholar should not force anyone in give their response and opinion.
At the time of conducting a research study, there are various kinds of research limitation faced by a scholar. Time is one of the significant limitations that affected the results of the investigation in a negative manner.
The 35 copies of Questionnaire approximately 100% of the population of the administered to the management board staff in which 10 doctors, 10 team of management and 15 respondents of other staff of the small level and big level hospital of the UK.
Reason to use Information technologies in the Healthcare sector:
The result of the above-given graph shows that 14% respondents agree with the reason to dissemination information while 34% said that IT helps to acquire information, 15% said IT helps to process information, 20% reported storing information and 17% to retrieve information. So, we can say that the main reason to use IT in the health sector is to acquire information and store information easily.
The effectiveness of IT in Healthcare sector:
The result of the efficiency of IT in healthcare sector result shows that 20% strongly agree with the statement that their hospital sector is technologically equipped, 18% strongly agree with the statement that their professional skills were improved by technology. Moreover, 22% said that IT helped to speed up hospital process of the classification and cataloging of material. While 20% said that IT has positively impacted the charging as well as discharging of the hospital material and 26% said that IT helps to reduce an anti-hospital crime, 28% strongly agree with the statement that IT enables most effective resource sharing, and 18% strongly agree with the statement that online database provides more up-to-date library information in their healthcare sector.
The data collected through the Questionnaire administered shows that the respondents that correctly filled their questionnaires were 35 out of the 35. Put differently, 35 copies of the Questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Because of the responses mentioned above given by the respondents shows that hospital management board is automated and the kind of so.
The research analysis shows that there is still room for improvement in the hospital. In particular, it appears to be a weak factor for the entire hospital. Communication, agility, and availability are the areas that affect the healthcare sector communication process such as signage, language, and guidance. Areas affecting agility include waiting times for appointment, enrollment, counseling, and medicine distribution. Areas that impact availability include doctors, nurses, and professional services.
Moreover, the use of Computer and information technology in hospitals cannot be improved in all the impact areas mentioned in the study, but most can help strengthen these deficiencies in hospitals. The demand for quality of health care is getting bigger and bigger with the demand for health promotion. Information technology can play an essential role in mobilizing hospitals to provide better services and will improve the quality of service in hospitals we dare to think outside the box. The possibilities are endless when hospitals design future jobs. The top management’s responsibility is to ensure that all stakeholders in the healthcare industry integrate information technology into the hospital and translate the overloaded manual processes into a technical foundation. Information technology will support doctors, nurses and general care teams to provide better service quality to achieve patient satisfaction.
Medical systems around the world face challenges such as increased costs, lack of human resources, aging populations and the prevalence of chronic diseases. To find a solution, the medical sector has integrated various types of ITs with the intent of providing health care at a low cost without compromising patient safety. The development of enhanced IT tools in the Healthcare sector in the UK is on the rise. Patients are better acquainted with their health and use other technologies to self-assess data and information. The professional formation of health care providers can avoid adapting to the more active patient paradigm, increasing the quality of care and IT development strategies can help solve these problems.
I want to share my experience with my research. This was not easy because it proved to be limited literature around the area because it was difficult to get a sense of research as in some abstracts. Some of the abstracts were difficult to review. This is because there is a limit to drawing specific conclusions, such as finding the research design that forced the search in the original article. In light of my writing experience, I realized at least that I enjoyed this process. I like learning and always want to get more knowledge both inside and outside the classroom. I am particularly passionate about learning about my primary and future professions in the nonprofit sector because I have taken optimistic research on this topic of my choice on this subject. Research and writing skills are essential not only in the academic environment but also in the nonprofit sector. Because grants are an exciting field for me, I now feel much more confident about my writing skills and research skills. Presentation skills are critical in almost all professional settings, and I think the presentation aspect of this assignment has helped develop it.
AAFP, 2019. Information Technology Used in Health Care. [Online]
Available at: https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/information-technology.html
JESS WHITE, ELIZABETH DEMARCO, RENEE COCCHI and KHOFFMAN, 2016. MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY. [Online]
Available at: http://www.healthcarebusinesstech.com/medical-technology/
Jinhyung Lee, Jeffrey S. McCullough, and Robert J. Town, 2013. The impact of health information technology on hospital productivity. [Online]
Available at: https://faculty.wharton.upenn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/2_The_impact_of_health_information_technology.pdf
Khatun, F., 2015. Impact of ICT on Health Services in Bangladesh: A Study on Hobiganj Adhunik Zila Sadar Hospital. [Online]
Available at: http://www.bangladeshstudies.org/files/WPS_no26.pdf
NABANOBA, S., 2005. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY. [Online]
Available at: https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/27233/27080.pdf?sequence=1
Peter B. Southard, Soongoo Hong, and Keng Siau, 2000. Information Technology in the Health Care Industry: A Primer. [Online]
Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.199.8268&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Ranta, P., 2010. Information and Communications Technology in Health Care. [Online]
Available at: http://epub.lib.aalto.fi/en/ethesis/pdf/12398/hse_ethesis_12398.pdf
Sun, R., 2016. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Hospital Quality of Care. [Online]
Available at: https://academicworks.cuny.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2324&context=gc_etds
Watts, E., 2018. The Impact of Information Technology on Medicine. [Online]
Available at: http://www.itbriefcase.net/the-impact-of-information-technology-on-medicine
Impact of Information Technology in Healthcare sector
- 21 to 25
- 26 to 30
- 31 to 35
- Above 35
- Is the hospital management team familiar with Information technologies used in the healthcare sector?
- What are the main reasons for the use of information technologies in the healthcare sector?
- To process information
- To acquire information
- To disseminate information
- To store information
- To retrieve information
- The effectiveness of Information technologies depends on:
Does your department technologically equip?
- Strongly Agree
- Strongly Disagree
Does technology improve your professional skills?
- Strongly Agree
- Strongly Disagree
IT has speeded up the process of cataloging and classification of hospital material
- Strongly Agree
- Strongly Disagree
IT has positively Impacted charging and discharging of hospital material
- Strongly Agree
- Strongly Disagree
DoesDoes IT helps to reduce anti-hospital crimes?
- Strongly Agree
- Strongly Disagree
IT enables most effective resource sharing
- Strongly Agree
- Strongly Disagree
Does online database provide more up-to-date information in the healthcare sector library?
- Strongly Agree
- Strongly Disagree